The paper published in today's "Journal of the American Medical Association" claims there are few high quality studies on food allergies.
It also questions allergy testing and whether most people are getting an accurate diagnosis.
Doctors say part of the confusion is over what is a food allergy and what is a food intolerance.
Allergies involve the immune system while intolerance generally do not.
Authors of the new report say there is even little evidence to back claims that breast fed babies have fewer allergies, or the babies should not eat certain food for the first year of life.