The single-engine experimental aircraft went down at about 2 p.m. just after takeoff from Olson Airport in Elgin.
According to Kane County Sheriff's Office spokesman Patrick Gengler, the victim was the only person on board the plane. He said it also appears that the victim was killed on impact.
The Kane County Sheriff's Office identified the victim as Frank Kehoe, 69, of Hampshire, Ill. Authorities say Kehoe was an experienced pilot. It was unknown where he was headed.
The FAA is investigating the cause of the crash.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.