Patterson was killed Jan. 6 by a roadside bomb. Three other members of his Indiana National Guard unit were also killed in the blast.
Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn and Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels attended the funeral.
Amid their grief, Patterson's parents expressed pride for their son's service to his country.
He would not want anyone to be sad over this occasion," said Patterson's father, Robert. "He was all about life, he was about joy."
Patterson was a 20-year-old sophomore at Valparaiso University.
The four bombing deaths represent the largest loss by the Indiana National Guard since 2005.