Four males, including the teens, were shot as they stood in the foyer of an apartment building near 53rd and King Drive in the Washington Park neighborhood just after 8 p.m.
The Chicago Fire Department confirmed a 15-year-old boy died before reaching the hospital while a 14-year-old is critical. The two other victims are expected to be OK.
Residents say that tension among gangs had been brewing on the block all day Monday.
"I don't get it," said Shakitta Thompson, area resident. "What would possess you to shoot a child like that? It makes me nervous for my own kids. My kids go to school rite there. I got to be alert."
Chicago police are not confirming residents' reports that gang tensions fueled the shooting.