The patient, 72-year-old Silvino Perez has been in a vegetative state since the operation two years ago.
The lawsuit claims Dr. Pervaiz Chaudhry left the operating room before Perez was in stable condition.
The suit says Perez's chest had not been properly closed, his heart stopped, and he ended up being put on life support.
The doctor has not commented on the lawsuit.
A state investigation found the surgeon violated the hospitals rules and regulations.