The singer was arrested around 2 p.m. on a probation violation warrant relating to his conviction for the February 2009 assault on his then-girlfriend Rihanna.
Authorities said Brown was cooperative when taken into custody. He is being held without bail at the Los Angeles County jail in downtown L.A. He is scheduled to appear in court Monday afternoon.
A judge had ordered the 24-year-old R&B singer to remain in a rehab center for anger management until the conclusion of an unrelated assault case in Washington D.C. The judge said that Brown would be sent straight to jail if he voluntarily left the program or was forced to leave.
According to court documents filed Friday, Brown "has been discharged from [the] residential program for failure to comply with rules and regulations."
In the Washington case, which happened last October, Brown and his bodyguard are accused of assaulting a man who tried to get in a photo with him outside the W Hotel.