CAUSES: The most common causes of chronic pain are long-term illness or disease, ongoing conditions and injuries, according to neurologychannel.com. Some long-term illnesses that may lead to chronic pain include cancer, fibromyalgia, arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Ear infections, migraines and peripheral neuropathies like carpal tunnel syndrome are some ongoing conditions that may explain a person's chronic pain. Muscle sprains and strains can also lead to chronic pain. Sometimes, pain that won't go away is pointing to damage to the nervous system, whether it's in the central nervous system (the brain, brainstem or spinal cord) or the peripheral nervous system. Central pain syndrome sometimes occurs in patients who have undergone damage to the central nervous system -- like to the spinal cord -- and may develop years after that damage has occurred. Trigeminal neuralgia is severe pain on one side of the jaw or cheek caused by damage to the trigeminal nerve, and phantom pain occurs in paralyzed patients or in patients who have had a limb amputated.
Often, it's impossible to find a direct cause of chronic pain. Those who suffer from this kind of pain often ask themselves if the pain is "in their head." The Mayo Clinic says a heightened sensitivity to pain can play a part in the condition. People who suffer from chronic pain often have lower-than-normal levels of painkilling endorphins. Even if no cause is found for a person's chronic pain, the condition can and should be treated.
TREATMENT: For milder cases of chronic pain, over-the-counter pain medications are effective. For more severe cases, opioid medications like Percocet and Vicodin are sometimes recommended. The drugs have been shown to provide effective pain relief, but a 2003 New England Journal of Medicine review article states long-term opioid use can be unsafe and even ineffective for treating chronic pain. For some, antidepressants or seizure drugs may relieve persistent pain. For others, medications to control pain may need to be injected by a doctor or administered via a medication pump. Pumps supply pain medication directly into spinal fluid. Other therapies used to treat chronic pain include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), physical therapy, occupational therapy, acupuncture, hypnosis and yoga. A study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine found 12 weeks of yoga benefited adults with chronic low back pain significantly more than exercise or a self care book. Another option is multidisciplinary pain management programs (MPP), which are made by a staff trained to help a patient manage his or her pain using a variety of methods. Professionals at MPPs can include physicians, registered nurses, psychiatrists or psychologists, physical therapists and biofeedback therapists. Options for treatment can include group therapy, occupational therapy, counseling, biofeedback training, nerve blocks and relaxation training.
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