Experts say this can occur after exposing a child to nuclear radiation from two or three CT head scans.
That's according to a 20 year study published in the journal Lancet.
The study also found that a child exposed to the cumulative radiation of between five and 10 CT scans is three times more likely than an unexposed child to develop leukemia.
Scientists say the absolute risks remains small but that radiation doses should be kept as low as possible and alternatives to ionizing radiation should be used whenever possible.
This is said to be the first study to provide direct evidence of a link.