It happened around midnight on the northbound lanes of Interstate 294 at Lake Cook Road, Northbrook fire officials said.
The cab of the truck was completely destroyed, Northbrook fire said.
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The driver managed to escape.
There's no word yet on how that fire may have started.
Fire officials said the truck was carrying "general packages," but the blaze did not spread to the trailer because firefighters dumped about 1,000 gallons of water and foam on it.
Illinois State Police also responded to the incident but did not immediately have any additional information.