The teen was a passenger on Copa Airlines Flight 208 flying in from Panama City.
According to witnesses, the young man quickly and suddenly popped open the emergency door, slid down the plane's wing and hit the ground and started running.
An airport spokesperson says the passenger, who was a U.S. citizen, was detained by a construction crew working on the airfield and had been taken into custody.
Police are questioning passengers who were onboard the flight.
Passengers said there was a big commotion when they noticed one of the exit doors was wide open.
"Just a standard landing and then everyone started noticing that I was sitting behind the mid emergency exit door and everyone noticed that the door had come off," passenger Sebastian Tamarelle said.
The airline released a statement after the incident, saying "a Copa crew member closed the exit door, and the aircraft proceeded to the gate where all other passengers and crew disembarked safely. The passenger has been taken into custody by law enforcement. We are cooperating fully with the relevant authorities to support the ongoing investigation."
Police dogs searched the area where the teen exited the plane, and ran on the tarmac.