Foster fumbled on his fourth carry of the game, early in the second quarter, and it was returned by Desmond Trufant for a 24-yard touchdown.
Foster, who was listed as questionable on the injury report, had not played this season since tearing his groin Aug. 3 during the Texans' first fully padded practice of training camp.
Despite being listed as limited during practice this week, Foster said Friday that he was "a full participant in practice."
Foster rushed for 1,246 yards and eight touchdowns last season, catching 38 passes for 327 yards and five touchdowns. He played in 13 games, missing three altogether and parts of three others because of injuries.
In 2013, Foster missed eight games with a back injury that required surgery.
ESPN Staff Writer Tania Ganguli contributed to this report.