Police said the male suspect was eating inside the restaurant in the first block of East Chicago Avenue at about 9:15 a.m. when he was asked to show proof of vaccination.
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After he refused, police said he began battering the 47-year-old security guard before fleeing the scene.
Responding officers located the suspect and arrested him, police said. Charges against him are pending.
Restaurants in Chicago are required to ask restaurant patrons eating indoors to provide proof of vaccination. The city is expected to end the mandate by the end of the month.