Taillon, 31, has been sidelined since sustaining a groin injury against the Los Angeles Dodgers on April 15.
Taillon is 0-2 with a 4.50 ERA over the first three starts of his first season in Chicago. He signed a four-year, $68 million contract in free agency, coming over after two seasons with the New York Yankees.
Taillon is 0-1 with a 3.86 ERA in five career starts versus Washington.
Also on Thursday, the Cubs optioned right-hander Jeremiah Estrada to Triple-A Iowa.
Estrada, 24, has allowed just two hits over four scoreless innings spread across three relief appearances this season.