Andre Curry, 21, is due in domestic court Wednesday. He was in custody at Area Two Chicago Police Headquarters overnight.
According to police, the photo shows the girl bound in blue painters tape.
Investigators say Curry, who is charged with aggravated domestic battery, used the tape to hold the 1-year-old in place. The photo reportedly showed tape around her wrists, ankles and over her mouth.
One of the father's Facebook friends may have reported the picture, which was also published by another news website. According to reports, a caption on the photo read, "This is wut happens wen my baby hits me back. ;)"
ABC7 Chicago searched for Curry's Facebook page and found that his profile and the photo had been removed by Wednesday.
Authorities say Curry worked at a chain restaurant as a waiter. He was due in court Wednesday afternoon.
DCFS is also looking into the case.