The body was found around 11:15 a.m. Monday in the water off of Zeiber Road in East Coventry Township, District Attorney Tom Hogan announced.
The pond is a popular swimming and fishing hole that is part of Pigeon Creek, Hogan said, also noting that the location is 'isolated' and 'rural.'
Children had been swimming in the pond on Sunday afternoon, local residents told police, so it appears the body was left in the water after that time.
Investigators described the woman as an African-American female, approximately 25 to 35 years old.
She was approximately 5'6" tall, weighed about 130 pounds, and had short hair.
Authorities released photos of the woman's clothing, tattoos, and jewelry in an attempt to identify her.
The woman was dressed in long shorts and a short-sleeved shirt, without any shoes.
She had bracelets on both wrists and rings on her fingers. The rings were of a horse and an anchor. She had a tattoo on her left shoulder.
Investigators believe she was dead when she was placed in the pond, saying there was no water in her lungs, indicating that she did not drown.
Her exact cause of death, however, is not yet known. The woman had no gunshot wounds or blunt force trauma, Hogan said, and there were no signs of strangulation.
"Sadly, somebody threw this woman away like a piece of trash. Our first job is to identify the victim. Then we will find out how she died and who was involved," Hogan said in a statement.
Anybody with information is asked to contact Chester County Detective Sergeant Tom Goggin at 610-344-6866.