Miller, 34, posted a heartfelt note to fans on his Instagram page announcing his retirement.
"I would love more than anything to step on Soldier Field one last time but I physically cannot give the game and our fans what they deserve," he wrote.
Miller had nine surgeries to address his injuries after he dislocated his knee and tore an artery on a potential touchdown reception in New Orleans on Oct. 29, 2017. He had left open the possibility of playing again up until announcing his retirement on Tuesday.
Miller finishes his career with 146 receptions for 1,631 yards and 15 touchdowns in 66 games. He was selected by Jacksonville in the sixth round of the 2009 draft and played for the Jaguars for three seasons.
In his announcement, Miller thanked his fans, his family, his coaches, his teammates, the Bears organization and the city of Chicago.
"It's difficult to find words to express my love and gratitude to every single person that has cheered my name, picked me up and stood strong with me throughout my time in this league. I am forever grateful," he wrote.
And he offered one final piece of advice to his fans and other aspiring athletes: "And to everyone else chasing a dream... never stop, never settle!"
The Associated Press contributed to this report.