Donaghy pleaded guilty last August to conspiracy to engage in wire fraud and transmitting betting information through interstate commerce.
Last week, two of Donaghy's former high school classmates, James Battista and Thomas Martino, were sentenced to 15 months and one year, respectively, for their roles in the scheme.
Donaghy, 41, had faced up to 33 months in prison.
The court ordered the three men to pay restitution to the NBA totaling approximately $217,000.
"Though we believe no sentence would ever be able to repair or justify the damage caused by this criminal and scoundrel, we are glad to finally put this behind us," said Lamell McMorris, spokesperson for the National Basketball Referees Association.
Donaghy also was sentenced to a three-year term of supervised release, on the condition that he receive mental health treatment for his gambling addiction.
Donaghy's defense attorney asked that Donaghy be sent to a federal prison camp in Florida, near his family.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.