The measure failed to get the 60 votes needed to proceed as part of a defense bill.
For Chicagoans hoping for its passage, it is another setback in the fight for immigration reform.
"How can we put in doubt our future, denying these young generations their right to live in peace without fear and being an asset for our country?" asked business owner Eddie Batres.
The vote likely means the end of congressional debate on any major immigration issues for the remainder of the year.