Illinois State Police said they responded just before 4:30 a.m. to a report of an injured pedestrian on eastbound Interstate 290 near Laramie Avenue.
The pedestrian suffered life threatening injuries and died, state police said.
The eastbound lanes of I-290 near Laramie are open after temporary closures for the investigation.
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A red car could be seen near the incident with its windshield shattered, and a shoe was lying in the roadway, as well.
An emergency traffic patroller on the scene later Sunday morning said it was possible a semitrailer hit the individual, but police did not immediately provide additional information about the vehicle involved or who was killed.
Anyone who witnessed the incident or has any knowledge of the incident is asked to call the ISP at 847-294-4400. Witnesses can remain anonymous.
The chaotic morning on the expressways continued on Interstate 57.
State police said one person died in a crash near 27th Street, and two people went to the hospital.
There was debris all over the expressway, and one car was completely charred from bursting into flames.
The other driver is expected to recover.